Thursday, 14 February 2019

Calculate Subnet Mask

You can calculate subnet mask and even break down IP address classes to help route the traffic in a network.

Calculating Subnet Mask


Those who are ready to take the CCNA exam, they need to calculate a subnet mask. Before you calculate the subnet mask, you should write down public and private class address ranges, as follows:

IP Address Class


Class A: 1 – 126 (127 reserved)
Class B: 128 – 191
Class C: 192 – 223
Class D: 224 – 239 (reserved)
Class E: 240 -254 (reserved and experimental)

Private Addresses


Class A: 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255
Class B: 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255
Class C: 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255

Hub, Switch, and Router: What is the Difference?

Hub, switch, and router are terms that are often used interchangeably. Have you ever wondered if there is any difference between them or are they all the same?

Let us find out the difference between hub, switch, and router in the following article.

Router, Switch, and Hub: Definition


The three devices router, switch, and hub are all different and can also be integrated into a single device at times.

Router:


A router is a device that forwards data packets along the network. It helps connects two networks, like two LANs, WANs or a LAN to its ISP network. The routers become gateways or places where two or more networks can be connected.

Switch:


A switch helps in filtering and forwarding packets between LAN segments. Switches can handle data as well as is aware of the specific addresses that help in sending messages. It can decide which device is the message sent to and will send the message directly to the correct device.

Hub:


A hub is used to connect segments of LAN. It contains multiple ports and when a packet arrives at a port, it is copied to other ports. This allows all the segments of LAN t see all packets and thus, a hub serves as a common connection point for devices connected in a network.

Difference between Hub, Switch and Router


Each device functions as a central connection for all the network equipment. It handles a data type called frames that carries data. When a frame is received it gets amplified before transmission to a port on the destination computer. The difference lies in the way the frames get delivered by the three devices.

A hub passes or broadcasts a frame on all its ports. It does not matter if the frame is destined for a single port. The hub cannot distinguish between which port a frame needs to be delivered. It is passed along all the ports till it reaches the destination port. This causes a lot of traffic on the network, leading to poor network speed.

In case of switch, it tracks the MAC addresses of all the devices connected. Using this information it can identify the system port. Thus, when a frame is received, it knows which port it is intended for and sends it there directly. This decreases the network response time and thus, allows users to access maximum amount of bandwidth irrespective of the number of transmitting computers.

Router on the other hand is a completely different device. It is connected to two networks called the two Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) or it can be connected to LAN and its ISP network. They are located at gateways, a place where two or more than two networks are connected. With the help of headers and forwarding tables, routers use the best path to forward data packets. The router uses ICMP to communicate and configure the best path between any two hosts.

This is all about the difference between hub, switch, and router. A hub helps glue an Ethernet network segment, switch helps connect multiple Ethernet segments and a router can do both these functions as well as router TCP/IP packets between LAN and/or WANs.

References:

1.https://www.speedguide.net/articles/difference-between-routers-switches-and-hubs-2444
2.https://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/router_switch_hub.asp
3.https://community.fs.com/blog/do-you-know-the-differences-between-hubs-switches-and-routers.html
4.https://medium.com/@fiberstoreorenda/do-you-know-the-difference-between-hub-switch-router-b74c2e8a8143

How To Find Devices Connected To Your Wi-Fi Network

Having a Wi-Fi network at home makes life easy for all. Everyone needs to be connected to the Internet in some way or the other. Smartphones, computers, laptops, tablets, even smart TV’s need an active Wi-Fi connection. Not just our own family members, but at times we have guests over who may share your Wi-Fi for a particular period. This includes your friends, neighbors, even relatives who come over for visit.

Over a period of time, you may find your Wi-Fi connection data is being used up too soon or is running too slow. This is when you find out or doubt you have a connection other than the devices in your home stealing your internet. How to find devices connected to your Wi-Fi network and eliminate the ones who do not belong to your family? We shall find an answer to this question in the following article.

Check Your Wireless Router Device


One of the easiest way to check if someone is actually stealing your Wi-Fi is by first and foremost disconnect all possible devices in your home connected to your home network. After you are sure none of your authorized devices are connected to your Wi-Fi take a look at your router device after about 10 minutes. You will find the wireless light has stopped blinking or in some routers turns red. If the light is still blinking or the light color has not changed to red, it means someone is still connected to your network.

Check the Router Admin Page


Now connect just your computer or laptop to your wireless network. On your computer, click Win key on your keyboard + R. Type cmd and a command prompt will appear, where you type ipconfig. Press Enter and you need to find Default Gateway. This default gateway is the IP address of your computer/laptop. Note it down.

Mac users need to open Network Preference pane and look at the IP address listed next to Router.

Open any browser and login to your router admin page.Depending on your router you need to look for the option that shows you all the connected devices to your home network. For example:

  • Linksys look for DHCP Clients,
  • D-Link for Wireless>Status,
  • TP-Link look for DHCP> DHCP Clients List

In this list you will get the IP address and host name. Check the IP addresses connected to the router currently. If you see any other IP address other than your own computer/laptop, means it is an unauthorized device that is stealing your network.

What to Do to an Unauthorized Device?


The first thing to do is block that IP address from your router admin page. Next, make sure your router security is WPA1-AES. Change your wireless network password so that all unauthorized devices can no longer get connected to your network. Now, only those devices that are authorized to use your network will know your new password.

To further find out who is mooching off your network, you can try downloading software tools that help monitor your network. You could try Advanced IP scanner that is free and easy to use. It will provide you with detailed information about each device connected to your network. Thus, helping you note if any unauthorized device has found a way to your network.

References:


1.https://www.howtogeek.com/204057/how-to-see-who%E2%80%99s-connected-to-your-wi-fi-network/
2.https://lifehacker.com/5738123/how-can-i-find-out-if-someones-using-my-wireless-network
3.https://helpdeskgeek.com/how-to/determine-computers-connected-to-wireless-network/

Difference Between Modem and Router

Modem and router are terms used interchangeably. However, there is a big difference between modem and router. It is quite easy to mix up between the two devices, if you do not know the simple difference between them.

Let us help you understand the difference between a router and modem in this article.

What is a Modem?


The modem is the device that helps connect a cable from outside and bring Internet connectivity to your computer. It connects the Internet Service Provider (ISP) through an Ethernet cable or DSL Internet service. The modem helps in facilitating the Internet connection by transmission and receiving data over telephone line. It usually has two ports. One port connects to the ISP and the other connects to the router in case of larger network.

Usually modems were standalone devices. They could be connected to the computer directly or to a router. Without the modem, Internet cannot be transmitted to your computers.


What is a Router?


A router is a device that helps you connect to the modem and build a private network. This network could be your home network, office network, or a network in a place of business such as a hotel. A router helps connect your devices to the Wi-Fi and bring internet not just to your computer, but even your smartphones, tablets, laptops, etc. wireless routers helps stream content on your devices.

Initially routers just had Ethernet ports for wired connections. However, the latest models now provide wireless connectivity. The router helps one access the LAN, but not necessarily access the Internet. To be connected to the Internet, the router needs to be connected to a modem. Thus, routers have a specific Ethernet port that is designed for connection to the Ethernet cable or DSL modem.

As you can see, the router and modem are two separate entities. Both need each other’s to help you access the Internet wirelessly. You can even find modems that have integrated routers today. These combo devices can be purchased from the market or can be supplied by the ISP provider.

So, the biggest difference between modem and router is that the modem can connect only one device to the Internet and the router can help multiple devices connect simultaneously to the Internet.  A modem provides Internet connection and a router cannot provide Internet connection without the modem.

References:


1.https://pc.net/helpcenter/answers/difference_between_router_and_modem
2.https://www.diffen.com/difference/Modem_vs_Router
3.http://www.differencebetween.net/object/difference-between-modem-and-router/
4.https://www.techbout.com/difference-between-modem-router-17059/
5.https://www.lifewire.com/difference-between-modem-and-router-4159854
6.https://whatismyipaddress.com/router-modem

Wednesday, 13 February 2019

Cable Modem Advantages and Disadvantages

Modem is a device that helps communicate computer signals such that it helps in sending and receiving data from the Internet. There are many types of modems available in the market. These include the dial-up modems, the satellite modems, those that use fiber optic networks, the newer cable modems.

We shall learn a bit about the cable modem advantages and disadvantages.

What is a Cable Modem?  

 
A cable modem is commonly used in homes. It is convenient to use and affordable device for home networks. Cable modems can transfer Internet data in a similar way like cable T.V.

The cable modem technology uses the separate wires within the same cable to transfer cable T.V programs as well as Internet data. This makes it profitable for service providers as they do not need to incur additional costs and can provide both cable service as well as Internet plans.

Advantages of Cable Modems


The advantages of cable modems are as follows:

  • You do not need a landline connection to get Internet. Also, your Internet is active 24/7 as it is not a dial-up connection, wherein you need to disconnect from the Internet in order to make and receive calls on your landline.
  • Cable modems provide faster Internet speed as compared to dial-up, satellite, and DSL connections.
  • One can download and upload large files faster over cable modems.
  • Cable modems do not dropout or lose connection as commonly as dial-up connections
  • The cable modems give better online gaming experience to users.

Disadvantages of Cable Modems


There are certain disadvantages of cable modems such as:

  • They offer slower Internet speeds as compared to fiber-optic Internet. Also, the speed depends on the number of connections connected to the same Internet line in your area. During peak hours, the speed may be slower as many people use the Internet simultaneously.
  • Using cable modem connections requires paying substantial fees on monthly, quarterly, or annual fees.
  • Cable modem connections are not available in all areas.

These are some of the cable modem advantages and disadvantages. Cable modems are convenient and easy to setup at homes. They do have their share of disadvantages, but the advantages are far more attractive. Cable modems offer satisfactory speeds, reliable connections, and quality services in most cases.

References:


1.https://www.dslreports.com/faq/3508
2.https://www.ficpa.org/Content/Sections/biztech/News/Tips/2009/090309.aspx
3.https://www.techwalla.com/articles/advantages-disadvantages-modems
4.https://www.superpages.com/em/cable-internet-access/
5.https://brilliantclarity.com/cable-internet-access-advantages-and-disadvantages/

Friday, 9 November 2018

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

The term ‘http’ is a common term used whenever one mentions a website address.


It is an innate part of the Internet. Although a common term, one does not generally know what HTTP stands for and what the use of HTTP is. This article will explain all about what is HTTP and its purpose in the following paragraphs.


What Does HTTP Stand for?



HTTP is the abbreviation for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is basically like the heart of the Internet. It helps with the communication between web browsers and web servers.

What is the Purpose of Hypertext Transfer Protocol?


HTTP has an important role in transmission of website data across the World Wide Web(WWW). It refers to the standard form of websites where one page refers the user to another page using clickable hyperlinks or links. It helps transfer information such as documents, file, image, video, etc. between computers using Internet. In simple words, it is the way servers and web browsers talk or communicate with each other.
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Hypertext Transfer Protocol is a client-server protocol, wherein two machines communicate with the help of a reliable, connection-oriented transport service like a TCP. A HTTP server is executed by Microsoft IIS, Jigsaw, Zope, Apache HTTP server, etc.

It is a stateless protocol that can correspond to a single request-response sequence. The pure HTTP server implementation treats every request as if it is absolutely new. The HTTP pages will be stored on the user’s computer and Internet cache. This helps in loading the pages faster the next time you revisit the website.

What is the Difference Between HTTP and HTTPS?

 




Now-a-days, you will notice many genuine websites such as shopping websites, banking websites, or websites that require your personal information have https in their address. The extra ‘s’ in HTTP indicates the website is ‘secure’. HTTPS simply refers to hypertext transfer protocol secure.

It is a secure version of HTTP where an encrypted connection between the web browser and server is opened. Thus, data is sent in an encoded way so that it cannot be read by eavesdroppers on its way to its actual destination. In case of HTTP, the messages or data sent is in form of plain text. Thus, anyone who can observer your network by sharing your Wi-Fi or connecting to a computer between the user computer and server will be able to read the messages and data sent.

Therefore, if you use online shopping websites or need to put your credit card information for making online purchases or need to send important emails and instant messages, make sure you use a website with HTTPS.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol is one of the most basic formats that help web pages communicate with the web server from the user’s browser. It was designed way back in the year 1989 by Sir Tim Berners. HTTP is an Application Protocol that helps in transferring resources on the Internet using Port 80.

References:

1.https://www.webopedia.com/TERM/H/HTTP.html
2.https://www.w3.org/Protocols/
3.https://searchwindevelopment.techtarget.com/definition/HTTP
4.https://www.pickaweb.co.uk/kb/what-is-http/
5.https://techterms.com/definition/http
6.https://www.techwalla.com/articles/what-is-the-purpose-of-hypertext-transfer-protocol
7.https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-use-of-http
8.https://www.d.umn.edu/~gshute/net/http.xhtml

Wednesday, 29 August 2018

What is 5G All About?



You may hear about a new cellular communications standard every decade or so. Recently, the latest standard is causing a lot of buzz in the wireless industry. Yes, we are talking about 5G or the 5th generation standard for encoding and transmitting data over radio waves.

So, what is this 5G and what makes people so interested in it? We shall see what is 5G all about in this article and clear the air about this latest technology set to change the face of mobile communication and Internet.





Overview: The Generation of Wireless Technology



It all began with 1G. The G stands for generation of wireless technology. 1G was the first wireless technology that defined the data transmission speed. It was supposed to be an analog cellular technology and began in the 1980’s. Soon, each new generation has led to a breakthrough in encoding methods or ‘air interfaces’. This has made the new generation incompatible with the previous generation.
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After 1G came the 2G technology. It included the CDMA, GSM, and TDMA. These were the first generation digital cellular technology. 2G was followed by 3G technology that introduced the world to EVDO, HSPA, and UMTS. 3G brought the speed of from 200 kbps down to few megabits/sec. Thus, setting base for the next generation wireless technology that is, 4G/LTE. It allowed high speed data transfer (hundreds of megabits per second) as well as better network for mobile communication.

We are now at the verge of the launch of 5G technology. It is expected to revolutionize the world of mobile communications and Internet. 5G is supposed to transmit 1 gigabit per second or even more.
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What are the Advantages of 5G?


5G will bring forth many advantages and changes. It will not just improve the speed, capacity, and latency of network, but also help mobile operators to develop multiple virtual networks in a single physical network, that is, 5G network.

With this feature, mobile network connections will be able to support specific uses or Internet of Thing (IoT). For example, you can connect to a particular home appliance such as your home air conditioner or refrigerator wirelessly or even function self-driving without any glitches.

It will take several years before the 5G and services connection becomes a reality. However, it will help in generation and invention of new appliances as well new technologies for home, businesses, as well as industries and factories.

How Does 5G Work?


5G will require high-power and larger cell towers as compared to 4G. This is required for transmission of signals over longer distances. The 5G wireless signals will be transmitted via large numbers of small cell stations that are placed on light poles or terraces of high buildings or high rise towers. This is necessary as the millimeter wave spectrum band ranges from 30 GHz and 300 GHz on which the 5G depends on to provide high speeds. This band of spectrum can travel short distances and is affected by physical obstacles such as buildings or weather interferences.

Is 5G Ready to Reach Us?


5G has been vigorously pursued in four countries- the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China. The network operators from these countries are expected to spend billions of dollars for 5G capital expenses until year 2030.

5G requires 5G ready devices that can run on 5G network. It will be launched by the end of 2019 but will commercially available between 2020 and 2025. It is only by 2030 will 5G become a mainstream technology.

Types of 5G Services


There are two types of 5G services being developed by mobile operators. This includes:
  • 5G fixed a wireless broadband service that delivers internet access to homes and businesses. This is wireless connection that requires NRs in small cell sites near buildings that beam a signal to a receiver. This receiver is placed on rooftops nd windowsills. It will make it cheaper for the operators to deliver broadband services as they will no longer need fiber optic lines and cables.
  • 5G cellular services that delivers 5G cellular network. It is expected to roll out in 2019 or start of 2020 when 5G enabled devices are commercially available.

This is what 5G is all about. 5G will be launched by AT&T in 12 cities by the end of 2019. It will bring forth the focus to smarter and faster smartphones as well as creation of interesting and useful applications in the future. 5G will surely makes the future appear more interesting and exciting for us all.

References:


1.https://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/5G
2.https://www.sdxcentral.com/5g/definitions/what-is-5g/
3.https://in.pcmag.com/cell-phone-service-providers/104415/feature/what-is-5g
4.http://theconversation.com/what-is-5g-the-next-generation-of-wireless-explained-96165