Friday, 4 June 2021

How Does Router Work

Routers are common devices found in homes as well as offices alike. Without routers, it will not be possible to use the Wi-Fi internet. But have you ever wondered how does router work? 

The following article deals with this question and will help you understand a routers working in simple terms.


Working of a Router


Routers are devices that help in connecting networks together as well as routing traffic between networks. The process where IP packets are forwarded from one network to another is called as routing.


There is a minimum of two network cards (NICs) in a router. One card is physically connected to a network and other physically connected to the other network. You can connect your router to any number of networks as it has a dedicated NIC for each network.


Components of a Router 


Let us learn what comprises of a router. The components of a router include:


  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Flash memory
  • Non-volatile RAM
  • Network Interfaces
  • Console 
  • RAM


The Process of Working in a Router


When you connect your router to an Internet provider’s network, it starts to work as follows:


  • Your router will power on and will load its OS using flash.
  • It will start loading the configuration file saved to NVRAM and will set up the network interface and routing protocol to run.
  • It will add the network address and subnet for every interface as well as the name of the interface itself.
  • The router follows a simple static default route and transfers all non-local data out of the Internet providers network port.
  • When any web page request is placed, the router will check the destination IP address against the routing table.
  • The bits formed from the destination IP address in the IP packet are used as a hash key which helps direct to the correct route. This turns points to the correct network interface to which the packet needs to be forwarded to.
  • Using the correct interface, the router transmits the packet out towards the next router that repeats the process until it reaches its destination.


Basically, a router is a networking device that helps in routing data packets between the home network and another network.


So, a router will allocate IP addresses to the devices connected using a DHCP server. It also helps carry out Network Address Translation (NAT). 


This is how a router works. It is actually a simple process if you do not dwell deep into the technical process.

How to Access Your Router If You Forget the Password

How to Access Your Router If You Forget the Password


Forgot the password to access your router? Do not worry. We will help you learn how to access your router. Just read on to find the answer to your problem.


Setting Up the Default Username and Password


When you cannot login into the router after you forget your password, you need to enable password recovery. You can open any browser like Internet Explorer, Firefox, or Chrome. Then, follow the steps below:


Once you launch any Internet browser page, make sure your device is connected to your router’s network.


Enter the default router IP address that is, 192.168.1.1 or 192.168.0.1.


You will be asked to enter the login ID and password. In most cases, the default username and password is ‘admin/admin’ or ‘admin/blank’.


In case, it does not match, or you have changed your default username and password, then the only thing to do is hard reset your router.


How to Hard Reset Router to Factory Settings


The only way to access your router after all failed attempts to recover your password, is hard resetting your router to factory settings.


Warning: 

Hard reset will cause you to lose all your Wi-Fi settings. Thus, you will need to save all your settings again after the hard reset that includes giving your network a new SSID as well as password.
Plug in your router into a power supply and find a tiny button at the back of your device. Using a pin or paper clip, press the button for about 30 seconds. The lights on the router device will flicker and flash. The router will reboot itself within a few minutes. 


Now, open a browser and enter the default IP address of your router. Enter the default username and password to access the router admin page. 


That’s it. Once you gain access to the admin page you can change the settings as per your needs and save the changes. This time make sure you write all your passwords and usernames in a safe place, in case you forget your password in future.

Default Username and Passwords for Routers

What is Default Username and Password for Router?


A default username and password means the settings saved by the manufacturer when the router left the factory. These default settings are same for every similar model of the router. In case you forget the username and password of the router, you can always check what is the default username and password for that particular router model. 

As it is same for all similar models, it will remain same for you until and unless you have changed the default username and password. In this case, you will have to run a factory reset and get your router back to its original factory settings.


Default Username and Passwords for Routers


There are many router manufacturers and each one has long list of different router models. However, most of the manufacturers keep the default username and password same for all models. 


Let us have a look at a list of router manufacturers and their default settings.


1.A- Link
Default Username – admin
Default Password – password


2.Netgear
Default Username – admin
Default Password – password
Default Password (very old models) – 1234


3.Belkin
Default Username – (blank)
Default Password – (blank)


4.CISCO
Default Username – admin
Default Password – admin


5.Beam Telecom WiFi Router
Default Username – admin
Default Password – (blank)


6.Binatone Router Password
Default Username – (blank)
Default Password – (blank)


7.ADSL
Default Username – admin
Default Password – admin


8.D-Link
Default Username – admin
Default Password – password


These are a few commonly used routers and their default passwords and usernames. You can even check the default username and password printed under your router device. Alternately, you can also Google the name and model number of your router and get the default username and password.