Thursday, 14 February 2019

Calculate Subnet Mask

You can calculate subnet mask and even break down IP address classes to help route the traffic in a network.

Calculating Subnet Mask


Those who are ready to take the CCNA exam, they need to calculate a subnet mask. Before you calculate the subnet mask, you should write down public and private class address ranges, as follows:

IP Address Class


Class A: 1 – 126 (127 reserved)
Class B: 128 – 191
Class C: 192 – 223
Class D: 224 – 239 (reserved)
Class E: 240 -254 (reserved and experimental)

Private Addresses


Class A: 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255
Class B: 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255
Class C: 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255

Hub, Switch, and Router: What is the Difference?

Hub, switch, and router are terms that are often used interchangeably. Have you ever wondered if there is any difference between them or are they all the same?

Let us find out the difference between hub, switch, and router in the following article.

Router, Switch, and Hub: Definition


The three devices router, switch, and hub are all different and can also be integrated into a single device at times.

Router:


A router is a device that forwards data packets along the network. It helps connects two networks, like two LANs, WANs or a LAN to its ISP network. The routers become gateways or places where two or more networks can be connected.

Switch:


A switch helps in filtering and forwarding packets between LAN segments. Switches can handle data as well as is aware of the specific addresses that help in sending messages. It can decide which device is the message sent to and will send the message directly to the correct device.

Hub:


A hub is used to connect segments of LAN. It contains multiple ports and when a packet arrives at a port, it is copied to other ports. This allows all the segments of LAN t see all packets and thus, a hub serves as a common connection point for devices connected in a network.

Difference between Hub, Switch and Router


Each device functions as a central connection for all the network equipment. It handles a data type called frames that carries data. When a frame is received it gets amplified before transmission to a port on the destination computer. The difference lies in the way the frames get delivered by the three devices.

A hub passes or broadcasts a frame on all its ports. It does not matter if the frame is destined for a single port. The hub cannot distinguish between which port a frame needs to be delivered. It is passed along all the ports till it reaches the destination port. This causes a lot of traffic on the network, leading to poor network speed.

In case of switch, it tracks the MAC addresses of all the devices connected. Using this information it can identify the system port. Thus, when a frame is received, it knows which port it is intended for and sends it there directly. This decreases the network response time and thus, allows users to access maximum amount of bandwidth irrespective of the number of transmitting computers.

Router on the other hand is a completely different device. It is connected to two networks called the two Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) or it can be connected to LAN and its ISP network. They are located at gateways, a place where two or more than two networks are connected. With the help of headers and forwarding tables, routers use the best path to forward data packets. The router uses ICMP to communicate and configure the best path between any two hosts.

This is all about the difference between hub, switch, and router. A hub helps glue an Ethernet network segment, switch helps connect multiple Ethernet segments and a router can do both these functions as well as router TCP/IP packets between LAN and/or WANs.

References:

1.https://www.speedguide.net/articles/difference-between-routers-switches-and-hubs-2444
2.https://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/router_switch_hub.asp
3.https://community.fs.com/blog/do-you-know-the-differences-between-hubs-switches-and-routers.html
4.https://medium.com/@fiberstoreorenda/do-you-know-the-difference-between-hub-switch-router-b74c2e8a8143

How To Find Devices Connected To Your Wi-Fi Network

Having a Wi-Fi network at home makes life easy for all. Everyone needs to be connected to the Internet in some way or the other. Smartphones, computers, laptops, tablets, even smart TV’s need an active Wi-Fi connection. Not just our own family members, but at times we have guests over who may share your Wi-Fi for a particular period. This includes your friends, neighbors, even relatives who come over for visit.

Over a period of time, you may find your Wi-Fi connection data is being used up too soon or is running too slow. This is when you find out or doubt you have a connection other than the devices in your home stealing your internet. How to find devices connected to your Wi-Fi network and eliminate the ones who do not belong to your family? We shall find an answer to this question in the following article.

Check Your Wireless Router Device


One of the easiest way to check if someone is actually stealing your Wi-Fi is by first and foremost disconnect all possible devices in your home connected to your home network. After you are sure none of your authorized devices are connected to your Wi-Fi take a look at your router device after about 10 minutes. You will find the wireless light has stopped blinking or in some routers turns red. If the light is still blinking or the light color has not changed to red, it means someone is still connected to your network.

Check the Router Admin Page


Now connect just your computer or laptop to your wireless network. On your computer, click Win key on your keyboard + R. Type cmd and a command prompt will appear, where you type ipconfig. Press Enter and you need to find Default Gateway. This default gateway is the IP address of your computer/laptop. Note it down.

Mac users need to open Network Preference pane and look at the IP address listed next to Router.

Open any browser and login to your router admin page.Depending on your router you need to look for the option that shows you all the connected devices to your home network. For example:

  • Linksys look for DHCP Clients,
  • D-Link for Wireless>Status,
  • TP-Link look for DHCP> DHCP Clients List

In this list you will get the IP address and host name. Check the IP addresses connected to the router currently. If you see any other IP address other than your own computer/laptop, means it is an unauthorized device that is stealing your network.

What to Do to an Unauthorized Device?


The first thing to do is block that IP address from your router admin page. Next, make sure your router security is WPA1-AES. Change your wireless network password so that all unauthorized devices can no longer get connected to your network. Now, only those devices that are authorized to use your network will know your new password.

To further find out who is mooching off your network, you can try downloading software tools that help monitor your network. You could try Advanced IP scanner that is free and easy to use. It will provide you with detailed information about each device connected to your network. Thus, helping you note if any unauthorized device has found a way to your network.

References:


1.https://www.howtogeek.com/204057/how-to-see-who%E2%80%99s-connected-to-your-wi-fi-network/
2.https://lifehacker.com/5738123/how-can-i-find-out-if-someones-using-my-wireless-network
3.https://helpdeskgeek.com/how-to/determine-computers-connected-to-wireless-network/

Difference Between Modem and Router

Modem and router are terms used interchangeably. However, there is a big difference between modem and router. It is quite easy to mix up between the two devices, if you do not know the simple difference between them.

Let us help you understand the difference between a router and modem in this article.

What is a Modem?


The modem is the device that helps connect a cable from outside and bring Internet connectivity to your computer. It connects the Internet Service Provider (ISP) through an Ethernet cable or DSL Internet service. The modem helps in facilitating the Internet connection by transmission and receiving data over telephone line. It usually has two ports. One port connects to the ISP and the other connects to the router in case of larger network.

Usually modems were standalone devices. They could be connected to the computer directly or to a router. Without the modem, Internet cannot be transmitted to your computers.


What is a Router?


A router is a device that helps you connect to the modem and build a private network. This network could be your home network, office network, or a network in a place of business such as a hotel. A router helps connect your devices to the Wi-Fi and bring internet not just to your computer, but even your smartphones, tablets, laptops, etc. wireless routers helps stream content on your devices.

Initially routers just had Ethernet ports for wired connections. However, the latest models now provide wireless connectivity. The router helps one access the LAN, but not necessarily access the Internet. To be connected to the Internet, the router needs to be connected to a modem. Thus, routers have a specific Ethernet port that is designed for connection to the Ethernet cable or DSL modem.

As you can see, the router and modem are two separate entities. Both need each other’s to help you access the Internet wirelessly. You can even find modems that have integrated routers today. These combo devices can be purchased from the market or can be supplied by the ISP provider.

So, the biggest difference between modem and router is that the modem can connect only one device to the Internet and the router can help multiple devices connect simultaneously to the Internet.  A modem provides Internet connection and a router cannot provide Internet connection without the modem.

References:


1.https://pc.net/helpcenter/answers/difference_between_router_and_modem
2.https://www.diffen.com/difference/Modem_vs_Router
3.http://www.differencebetween.net/object/difference-between-modem-and-router/
4.https://www.techbout.com/difference-between-modem-router-17059/
5.https://www.lifewire.com/difference-between-modem-and-router-4159854
6.https://whatismyipaddress.com/router-modem

Wednesday, 13 February 2019

Cable Modem Advantages and Disadvantages

Modem is a device that helps communicate computer signals such that it helps in sending and receiving data from the Internet. There are many types of modems available in the market. These include the dial-up modems, the satellite modems, those that use fiber optic networks, the newer cable modems.

We shall learn a bit about the cable modem advantages and disadvantages.

What is a Cable Modem?  

 
A cable modem is commonly used in homes. It is convenient to use and affordable device for home networks. Cable modems can transfer Internet data in a similar way like cable T.V.

The cable modem technology uses the separate wires within the same cable to transfer cable T.V programs as well as Internet data. This makes it profitable for service providers as they do not need to incur additional costs and can provide both cable service as well as Internet plans.

Advantages of Cable Modems


The advantages of cable modems are as follows:

  • You do not need a landline connection to get Internet. Also, your Internet is active 24/7 as it is not a dial-up connection, wherein you need to disconnect from the Internet in order to make and receive calls on your landline.
  • Cable modems provide faster Internet speed as compared to dial-up, satellite, and DSL connections.
  • One can download and upload large files faster over cable modems.
  • Cable modems do not dropout or lose connection as commonly as dial-up connections
  • The cable modems give better online gaming experience to users.

Disadvantages of Cable Modems


There are certain disadvantages of cable modems such as:

  • They offer slower Internet speeds as compared to fiber-optic Internet. Also, the speed depends on the number of connections connected to the same Internet line in your area. During peak hours, the speed may be slower as many people use the Internet simultaneously.
  • Using cable modem connections requires paying substantial fees on monthly, quarterly, or annual fees.
  • Cable modem connections are not available in all areas.

These are some of the cable modem advantages and disadvantages. Cable modems are convenient and easy to setup at homes. They do have their share of disadvantages, but the advantages are far more attractive. Cable modems offer satisfactory speeds, reliable connections, and quality services in most cases.

References:


1.https://www.dslreports.com/faq/3508
2.https://www.ficpa.org/Content/Sections/biztech/News/Tips/2009/090309.aspx
3.https://www.techwalla.com/articles/advantages-disadvantages-modems
4.https://www.superpages.com/em/cable-internet-access/
5.https://brilliantclarity.com/cable-internet-access-advantages-and-disadvantages/