Tuesday, 28 June 2016

IPv4 vs IPv6

Have you heard? We have run out of the last block of the allocated IPv4 addresses!

The Internet Protocol addresses such as 99.47.228.228 are about to be exhausted. Don’t worry, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has come up with IPv6.

IPv6 is the successor of IPv4. This cousin of IPv4 is quite different from it. The transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is not going to be easy. Thus, the Ipv6 has been chosen to coexist with IPv4 for some time.






Why have the IP addresses run out? Well, with the invention of smartphones and tablets many more users are able to be connected to the Internet. This has caused many IP addresses to be used up.

It may come as a surprise to you, that IPv6 specification was released back in December 1998. Why are we still using that almost 99% overloaded IPv4? That is because the transition is very slow. ISPs and other world’s websites are gradually switching to IPv6. They still are trying to help users access all websites that have undergone a switch or not.

So what is IPv4 and IPv6. Let’s find out and learn more about the differences between IPv4 and IPv6.


What is IPv4?


IPv4 or Internet Protocol Version 4 is used to identify devices on a network using an addressing system. It uses the 32-bit address scheme and allows 2^32 addresses. It helps you connect your devices to the Internet. It assigns a unique IP address to every PC, MAC, smartphone, or any other Internet-enabled device. It sends data from one computer to another through the web using a data packet across the network using an IP address.

Without the IP address, the computers will not be able to send or receive any data from each other.

What is IPv6?


The sixth revision of the Internet Protocol is called as IPv6. It is similar to IPv4 as it provides unique, numerical IP addresses to Internet-enabled devices. However, the difference is the utilization of 128-bit address. This means it can support 2^128 Internet addresses. Which is translated as 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 addresses. Now this is a very big number that will keep the Internet up and running for a really long time.

This is all about IPv4 vs IPv6. The transition from Ipv4 and IPv6 is going to take long. However, it has to be done sooner or later to let the Internet function smoothly. Till then, experts continue to make IPv6 better, remove bugs and overcome security issues.

References:

1.http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/ipv6_ipv4_difference.html
2.http://electronicdesign.com/embedded/whats-difference-between-ipv4-and-ipv6
3.http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/ipv6-ipv4-care-user-makeuseof-explains/
4.http://mashable.com/2011/02/03/ipv4-ipv6-guide/#k8ihjiZVl5qS
5.http://www.networkworld.com/article/2692482/ipv6/infographic-ipv4-vs-ipv6.html
6.https://www.juniper.net/techpubs/en_US/learn-about/ipv4-ipv6-differences.pdf
7.http://www.omnisecu.com/tcpip/ipv6/differences-between-ipv4-and-ipv6.php

Thursday, 23 June 2016

Free and Public DNS Server List

Your Internet Service Provider automatically assigns the DNS server for your router or computer. This happens whenever when your device tries to connect to the Internet.



So do we have to compulsorily use the DNS server assigned by your ISP? Well no. You can use free and public DNS servers in place of the default DNS assigned. If you have no clue about free and public DNS servers, we will introduce some of the reliable servers to you.



Why Use Free DNS Servers?




There are certain situations where you need to seek an alternative DNS server for your computer.

These situations include:

  • You find an alternative DNS server is very close to your location and using it will improve your Internet speed.
  • The DNS server provided by your ISP is found to be unreliable. Thus, choosing an alternative DNS server will solve your security issues.
  • Some users are still using an old Operating System. They do not receive any security updates for their computer. In such a case, choosing a third-party DNS will help protect you from phishing attacks.
  • The most common reason for most people to opt for free and public DNS servers is geographical restrictions and web censorship. Using an alternative DNS server can help you access websites that you otherwise can’t open due to restrictions on your DNS server.

5 Best Free and Public DNS Servers







When you go looking for free and public DNS servers, you will find a long list of providers. Which ones are reliable and which ones are worth the change? Well, we will give you names of top 5 free DNS servers that you can choose an alternative.

#1 Google Public DNS


Google provides the most reliable and preferred third-party DNS service. The Google Public DNS will make your web experience faster and secure. You can start using their DNS servers by changing your IP addresses to 8.8.8.8 and 8.8.4.4. Keep in mind, Google supports IPv6 connectivity.

# 2. OpenDNS


Now, if you need an extensive version of a DNS server, you need to opt for OpenDNS. The company makes sure your devices remain secured. They offer two versions of their services Personal and Business. These variants have awesome features that matches their requirements. Such as parental controls in the Personal version. You need to change your IP addresses to 208.67.222.222 and 208.67.220.220 to enable OpenDNS on your device.

#3. DNS Watch


Another third-party DNS server for the minimalistic user. You can use Internet that is fast and uncensored with DNS Watch at no cost at all. Yes, you read it right. The company believes in DNS Neutrality and thus, does not permit any intrusion of any kind. The IP address for DNS.Watch is 82.200.69.80 and 84.200.70.40.

#4 Norton ConnectSafe


This DNS server is designed to provide users with utmost security in the web world. It will protect you from phishing, malware, scams, pornography, etc. Norton ConnectSafe can be configured in both the system as well as routers.



#5. Level3 DNS


Level3 DNS provides not just reliable Domain Name System, but also provides uses with high-level performance. It is a network-based service that provides the best speed. The IP for Level3 is 209.244.0.3, 209.244.0.4, 4.2.2.1, 4.2.2.2, 4.2.2.3 and 4.2.2.4.

Other Free and Public DNS Servers


The following are a few other alternative DNS servers you can opt for.

  • Comodo Secure DNS -    8.26.56.26;    8.20.247.20
  • DNS Advantage-    156.154.70.1;    156.154.71.1
  • Norton ConnectSafe6-    199.85.126.10;    199.85.127.10
  • GreenTeamDNS7     - 81.218.119.11;    209.88.198.133
  • SafeDNS8 -    195.46.39.39;    195.46.39.40
  • OpenNIC9 - 50.116.23.211;    107.170.95.180
  • SmartViper - 208.76.50.50;    208.76.51.51
  • Dyn- 216.146.35.35;    216.146.36.36
  • Hurricane Electric14 - 74.82.42.42     
  • puntCAT15    - 109.69.8.51   

You can try these a few free and public DNS servers. It will definitely improve the speed as well as security you experience when surfing the Internet.

References:

1.http://beebom.com/best-dns-servers/
2.https://developers.google.com/speed/public-dns/
3.http://public-dns.info/
4.http://pcsupport.about.com/od/tipstricks/a/free-public-dns-servers.htm

What is Internet Service Provider?

Internet Service Provider is the main key for any Internet user to start using Internet. Let us learn a bit about who or what is an Internet Service provider?



Internet Service Provider – Overview


An Internet Service Provider or commonly called an ISP is a company that provides users with Internet access. ISP business runs on the principal of providing users with Internet access and related services.



These ISPs provide customized plans to the users using the Internet. They are usually telecommunication companies who provides data communication access as well as a telephone line.



The ISP charges a fee from the users in exchange for gaining access to the Internet. ISPs connect users to the Internet through a phone line (dial-up connection, such as BSNL) or a broadband connection (using a cable or DSL such as Reliance broadband).

In order to attract more clients, many ISPs also give freebies inform of free e-mail accounts, web browsers, as well as additional space to create a website for the users company, if any.

How to Use Internet from ISPs?


Once you select an ISP that suits your requirement, you need to pay them certain fees. These fees can be paid monthly, quarterly, half-yearly or even annually. This depends on the ISP and their company policy.

After you sign a contract with the company, you are provided with a software package, username, password, and even a phone number (in some cases). With the help of the modem provided by the ISP, you can then log on to the Internet and start browsing.

This was all about Internet Service Providers. They are commercial companies who are privately or community-owned. Seek the company with maximum benefits to suit your needs and use their services to access the Internet.



References:

1.http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/what-is-internet-service-provider#1TC=windows-7
2.http://www.xfinity.com/resources/internet-service-providers.html
3.http://whatismyipaddress.com/isp
4.http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/ISP.html
5.http://searchwindevelopment.techtarget.com/definition/ISP
6.http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/i/isp.htm

Wednesday, 22 June 2016

What is DHCP and How Does It Work?

DHCP is the most important protocol for everyone who wishes to use the Internet.


Those who need to know more about IP addresses need to know a bit about DHCP. This is because it has a direct connection with millions of IP addresses that includes the one you use.
Let us learn more about what is DHCP and how does it work.



 What is DHCP?


DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It helps control the network configuration of a host with a remote server. This functionality of DHCP is installed by default in most operating systems. It helps one overcome the tedious manual configuration of a network on any network device or host.



 Different Messages Used by DHCP?


Have you ever given it a thought, when you connect your computer to the Internet, all the information related to IP address, subnet mask, etc. are assigned automatically? Don’t you wondered how this happens? Well, this is all due to the in-built DHCP in your operating system.

DHCP functions on the client-server model. As it is a protocol itself, it works on its related messages that are exchanged between the client and the server.
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These messages include:


 1. DHCPDISCOVER


It is a broadcast message that begins the interaction between a client and server. It uses 255.255.255.255 as its destination IP address. The source IP is 0.0.0.0.


2. DHCPOFFER


This is the message sent by the DHCP server to the DHCP client as a response to DHCPDISCOVER.

3. DHCPREQUEST


This message indicates that the client has accepted the network configuration in response to the DHCPOFFER message from the server.

4. DHCPACK


The DHCP Server sends this message when it receives the DHCPREQUEST message from the client. It is the end of the process and it just about acknowledgement of the DHCP server to authorize the DHCP client to use the network configuration.

5. DHCPNAK


This is the message the is the opposite of DHCPACK. The DHCP server sends it when it cannot complete the DHCPREQUEST by the client.

6. DHCPDECLINE

 

This is the message of the DHCP client to the server in case it gets an IP address assigned is already in use.

7. DHCPINFORM


This is the message that is sent when IP Address is statically configured on a client. With this message, only other network settings are requested to be filled dynamically by the DHCP servers.

8. DHCPRELEASE


It is a message for termination of the lease of network address provided by the DHCP server sent by the DHCP client.
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How does DHCP Work?


  • A computer is connected it sends DHCPDISCOVER message from client to server.
  • The DHCP server receives the DHCPDISCOVER and it replies with DHCPOFFER message.
  • The client will now reply a DHCPREQUEST message to the DHCPOFFER sent by the DHCP server. This means the client wants to accept the configuration sent by the DHCP server.
  • After the server gets the DHCPREQUEST message from the client, it will send a DHCPPACK message to the client that indicates it can now use the IP address assigned to it.

DHCP Lease


It is important to know about the concept of lease by DHCP. When a server assigns an IP address to a client, it is given on lease. Once the lease expires, the same IP address can be assigned to another client. Suppose a PC works for 10 hours a day, it will be assigned an IP address. When the PC is shut down for the day, the IP address will be assigned to another client. Suppose the lease is about to expire, the DHCP client will try to renew the lease after half time. This process is done with the help of the DHCPREQUEST and DHCPACK messages.

This was in short about what is DHCP and how does it work. Without the DHCP protocol one will not be able to assign IP addresses to their networks automatically.

Friday, 17 June 2016

What is Local Area Network?

What is Local Area Network?


A local area network or LAN refers to a computer network. This network spans a small geographical area like a school, office building, hospital, home or a group of buildings. 


What is a LAN Composed of?


LAN consists of inter-connected workstations and personal computers. These group of computers and other devices such as scanners, printers, data storage devices, etc. are all linked together to a server.


This server and its connected devices are all located within a particular geographical area. With this connection, computers and other devices can share information and resources like a printer.

How Many Computers and Devices are Connected to a LAN?


A LAN can be made up of 2 to 3 computers in a tiny establishment or a computer and other hand-held devices such as smartphones, tablets, etc. It can also consists of hundreds of computers connected together in case of a large organization or office building. 

Which Are the Commonly Used LAN Technologies?


The two most commonly used LAN technologies includes Wi-Fi and Ethernet. Other technologies included the Fiber Distribution Data Interface, ARCNET, Token Ring, etc. However, Wi-Fi and Ethernet are now the most preferred technologies today. This is because they provide better speeds to a LAN connection.  

How Does a LAN Function?


A LAN consists of computers and servers that are connected through cables and wires. In some cases, wireless access to a wired network is possible with the help of wireless access points (WAPs). With the help of WAP, one can connect hundreds or more computers wirelessly to a network. 

However, cable connections remain faster than the wireless connections. Thus, stationary workstations are usually connected with a cable. However, when it comes to cost, a wirelessly connected workstation will be easier as well as affordable compared to a wired one.

Thus, LAN or Local Area Network is very useful in connecting a large number of devices together and simultaneous exchange of information and data.

References:


1.http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/local-area-network-LAN
2.http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/L/local_area_network_LAN.html
3.https://www.techopedia.com/definition/5526/local-area-network-lan
4.http://fcit.usf.edu/network/chap1/chap1.htm

Thursday, 16 June 2016

How can I change my network's WEP encryption key?

WEP or Wireless Encryption Protocol was the initial encryption method offered on wireless network. It was more like a joke as hackers could easily break into your wireless network within 30 minutes. If you are still using WEP encryption, it is time to smell the coffee.



You need to change your network’s WEP encryption key into WPA or WPA2-Personal. If these options are not available on your router, you should immediately upgrade the firmware or invest in a new router. Let us have a look at the process for changing network’s WEP encryption key.

Securing Your Network with WPA/WPA2 from WEP Encryption Key




The latest routers provide high connection speeds as well as comply with the 802.11n security standards. These routers have WEP, WPA and WPA2 as encryption options. WEP is the weakest form of encryption method for any network.



If you wish to change the WEP encryption key, you need to do the following:

  • Enter the default IP address in your browser’s address bar.
  • Enter the login details, that is, default username and password
  • Once you gain access, go to Wireless, Wireless Setup or Advanced Security Settings.
  • Look for Security Mode and from the dropdown list, select WPA-PSK or WPA2-Personal or WPA2/WPA Mixed Mode.
  • Enter the Passphrase that is at least 8 characters long and contain uppercase and lowercase letters along with numbers and special characters.
  • Click on Save Settings.

In this way, you can change your WEP encryption key into a more secure and protected encryption key for your network.

9 Steps to Setting Up a Cisco Router

Setting up a Cisco router is very easy, especially if you know the router model. We shall cover 9 basic steps to setting up a Cisco router in this guide.


Basic Steps to Set Up a Cisco Router


There are many Cisco router models available and you can always go through the manual that accompanies with your router package. If you seem to have misplaced the router manual, you can Google the router model name, number, and search for an online guide. Generally, the process for setting up a Cisco router is same for most devices. Thus, let us have a look at the basic 9 steps to setting up a Cisco router.

Before we begin, you need to have the following items ready with you:

  • Router and the power supply assembly that is provided with the device
  • An Ethernet cable for the PC (provided along with the device)
  • Another Straight-through Ethernet cable or ADSL cable according to the router model.

Installing the Cisco Router




In order to install the Cisco router, you need first attach the antenna, if provided with the device. If not, then continue with the installation.



Step 1

Connect the router to the PC using an Ethernet cable. Then connect the additional Ethernet cable between the Internet port of the router and the available port on the cable modem or installed DSL. Turn on the broadband modem.

Step 2

Connect the power to the router. When the green LED lights on the front panel of the router flash, it means your router is ready for use.

Step 3

In a web browser, type the default IP address. The default IP address is usually 198.168.1.1. You will be asked for a default username (cisco) and password (cisco).


Step 4

Go to Basic Configuration and enter your SSID and Password. Choose a unique SSID that will be your network name and a password that is strong.

Step 5

Click Next and you will be moving to LAN IP address. Click Next again.

Step 6

On the DHCP screen, click on Enable DHCP server and enter the IP address with Starting IP address as 198.168.10.50 and Ending IP address as 192.168.10.250. Click Next.

Step 7

On WAN Configuration click Next. On Security Configuration screen, make sure all boxes are checked. Click Next.

Step 8

Review your configuration on the Wizard Summary Screen and make sure it is accurate. Now click on Finish.

Step 9

Click OK and save the new configuration. On your computer, search for your SSID and click connect. Enter the password saved and you will be connected to the Internet wirelessly. Disconnect the Ethernet cable that connects your PC with your Router.



These are the basic 9 steps to setting up a Cisco router. If you still have trouble, search for the Cisco router model on Google and look for the instructions to solve your query.

Read:

Wifi password

192.168.1.1 log in

192.168.0.1 admin


References:


1.http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/access/1800/1801/software/configuration/guide/scg/routconf.html

2.http://www.cisco.com/public/technotes/smbsa/en/us/internet/configure_sdm.html

3. http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/access/800/802/software/configuration/guide/10368_01.html

Should I use WPA2, WPA or WEP encryption on my network?

When you set up your router, you will come across a number of choices when setting up the wireless encryption. These terms include WPA. WPA2, WEP, WPA-Personal, and WPA-Enterprise. Choosing the right network security will make a whole lot of difference in keeping your network fast and secure from hackers.



Let us learn which of the following WPA2, WPA, or WEP encryption are best for your network.

Choosing the Right Encryption from WPA2, WPA or WEP




Which is the best encryption type for your network does not have any standard answer. It depends on your router model and the type of security encryption it offers. Let us understand in short the various encryption types to find an answer to this tough question.


WEP


The oldest security encryption of them all is the WEP. It stands for Wired Equivalent Privacy and is as good as not having any security for your Wi-Fi. One can crack a password under WEP within 30 minutes. If you are still using an older version router that just supports WEP, it is definitely time for a new upgrade.

WPA and WPA2


WPA is the new security standard in the world of Wi-Fi routers. It stands for Wi-Fi Protected Access. There are two versions of WPA available, the WPA or WPA2. The main reason for designing WPA was to support devices that only had WEP as their security. In order to overcome the flaws of WEP, WPA was added as an upgrade.

WPA is not as secure as WPA2. WPA2 stands for Wi-Fi Protected Access. It is the most secure option that keeps your network secured from prying eyes. However, if your device only supports WPA, you should invest in a new router.

WPA2-Personal or WPA2-PSK




Those who have bought a more advanced version of a router will find the terms WPA2-Personal and WPA2-PSK as their wireless encryption options. Now, the PSK stands for Pre-Shared Key. Now, if you choose WPA2-Personal, the wireless router will encrypt the network with a key. Thus, before you can connect to a network, you need to enter the passphrase into the device. This makes this type of encryption perfect for any home or small office security needs.

WPA2-Enterprise or WPA2-802.1X


WPA2- Enterprise also called as WPA2-801.X is intended for enterprise networks. It means serious business, as such, enterprises require more hardware that is difficult to setup and maintain.

In order to use the WPA2-Enterprise, one requires a RADIUS authentication server. The full form of RADIUS is Remote Authentication Dial In User Service. Once a client is connected to the Wi-Fi network, they will have to log in using a username and password. Thus, each client will receive traffic that is encrypted with a unique encryption key. This makes it easy for the network administrator to monitor who is connecting to the network and block anyone who tries to connect without his or her permission.

Which is the Best Encryption Method?


The best way to secure your network is by choosing WPA2-Enterprise. However, this method is great for large businesses and offices. Home and small shops or enterprises can go in for WPA2-Personal. WPA is an option only if your device cannot support the WPA2. WEP is like inviting a thief to your home by leaving the key hanging on your main door.



Thus, WPA-Personal is the best option for any home network. Use a strong passphrase to keep your network secured and free from hackers.

Monday, 6 June 2016

What is Wi-Fi and How Does it Work

Have you ever wondered what the full form of Wi-Fi is? Do you know how does the most common thing around the house or office, that is, Wi-Fi works?


In the following article we shall discuss what is Wi-Fi and how does it work.

What is Wi-Fi?


Wi-Fi is an acronym for the term Wireless Fidelity. It is a technology that uses radio waves to help a network be connected to the Internet. It was developed to replace the Ethernet cable that usually helps computers connect to the Internet. This was after the dial-up connection become a passé. So, Wi-Fi is a way to broadcast Internet without the help of wires.




You can connect many computers, laptops, smartphones as well as other devices that require Internet with the help of a Wi-Fi. You don’t need extra cables and wires or extra phone lines, just a wireless router will suffice.

Wi-Fi uses radio frequencies to send the signals between different devices. These radio signals are nothing like your walky talkie or weather radio signals. The Wi-Fi transmits and receives these signals in the Gigahertz range.

The frequency at which Wi-Fi waves travels is around 2.5Ghz and 5Ghz. These frequencies are similar to the frequencies of the microwave.


How Does Wi-Fi Work?


Wi-Fi just like a mobile phone uses radio waves to transmit data as we have discussed in the preceding paragraph. The computer needs to be connected to a wireless adapter that can convert data into a radio signal. This signal is then transmitted with the help of an antenna to a decoder. This decoder is called as the wireless router. The wireless router will decode the signal and send the information to the Internet via a wired Ethernet connection.

The Wi-Fi network is a two-way traffic. It can transmit data to the Internet as well as receive data from the Internet.

Read: How to retrieve wifi password

What are Wi-Fi Frequencies?


The wireless network can transmit data at a frequency level of 2.4 GHZ or 5GHz. The 802.11a networking standard can transmit data at a frequency of 5GHz. The 802.11b can transmit data at frequency level of 2.4GHz, a very slow speed. This means you can transmit just 11 megabits of data/second. The 802.11g transmit data at 2.4GHz, but also transmit at maximum 54 megabits of data/per second. The most advanced of all networking standards is the 802.11n that can transmit at a maximum of 140 megabits data/per second.

How to Setup Wi-Fi?


In order to setup a Wi-Fi connection, you need a wireless transmitter called as the wireless access point (WAP) and a Wi-Fi adapter on every device that needs to be connected to the Wi-Fi network.

Most Internet Service Providers today supply users with a router, modem and a wireless transmitter in one device. This all-in-one device is called a router. The router just needs an electricity outlet for powering up and needs to be plugged into a phone socket. Many broadband Internet connections just require an adapter to be connected with the router using an Ethernet cable.

Most devices today have a built-in Wi-Fi receiver and thus, are Wi-Fi ready. All you need is to setup the router and adapter and connect your device to your Wi-Fi network.

This is all about what is Wi-Fi and how does it work. Wi-Fi is the simplest way to connect multiple devices to the Internet.

Read:

Wifi password

192.168.1.1 log in

192.168.0.1 admin